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GMO? A Precautionary Tale

References and Further Reading

  1. “Uncertain Peril: Genetic Engineering and the Future of Seeds,” Claire Hope Cummings, Beacon Press, 2008.
  2. Council for Responsible Genetics, http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/
  3. Personal communication with Bill Freese, Science Policy Analyst, Center for Food Safety, 9/11/08.
  4. “Support of the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods,” American Public Health Association, Policy Number: 200111; 1/1/2001.
  5. USDA Economic Research Service, “The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America,” www.ers.usda.gov/Data/BiotechCrops/
  6. Personal communication with Tom Schwartz, Executive Vice President, Beet Sugar Development Foundation: www.bsdf-assbt.org/
  7. Friends of the Earth: www.foe.org/ ; and Friends of the Earth International, “Who Benefits from GM crops?” January 2008.
  8. Biodiversity: Its Importance to Human Health, Harvard Medical School: http://chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/bio/
  9. “Position Statement on Genetically Engineered Food,” Health Care Without Harm: www.noharm.org/lib/downloads/food/Genetic_Engineered_Food_Stmnt.pdf 
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Organic Agriculture and Food Security,” ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/organicag/ofs/OFS-2007-5.pdf
  11. Personal communications with Robert Kremer, September 5,8,9, 2008.
  12. Personal communication with Bill Wenzel, Farmer to Farmer Campaign on Genetic Engineering, 9/5/08.
  13.  “GM crops are uncontainable: so what?” E. Ann Clark, Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Ontario.
  14. Center for Food Safety: www.centerforfoodsafety.org/
  15.  “Round 2 for Biotech Beets,” New York Times, November, 27, 2007: www.nytimes.com/2007/11/27/business/27sugar.html
  16.  “Application of Modern Biotechnology to Food and Agriculture: A Food Systems Perspective,” McCullum, C., Benbrook, C., Roberts, S., et. al. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, December 2003. 



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Biotech Glossary

Biotechnology, bioengineering, and genetic engineering describe recombinant DNA technology, which allows scientists to cross species barriers. For example: inserting bacterial DNA into a plant to deliver traits such as pest or herbicide resistance.

GMO: Genetically modified organism
GE: Genetically engineered
RR: Roundup Ready
Bt: Bacillus thuringiensis
Roundup: glyphosate

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