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GMO? A Precautionary Tale



References and Further Reading

  1. “Uncertain Peril: Genetic Engineering and the Future of Seeds,” Claire Hope Cummings, Beacon Press, 2008.
  2. Council for Responsible Genetics, http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/
  3. Personal communication with Bill Freese, Science Policy Analyst, Center for Food Safety, 9/11/08.
  4. “Support of the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods,” American Public Health Association, Policy Number: 200111; 1/1/2001.
  5. USDA Economic Research Service, “The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America,” www.ers.usda.gov/Data/BiotechCrops/
  6. Personal communication with Tom Schwartz, Executive Vice President, Beet Sugar Development Foundation: www.bsdf-assbt.org/
  7. Friends of the Earth: www.foe.org/ ; and Friends of the Earth International, “Who Benefits from GM crops?” January 2008.
  8. Biodiversity: Its Importance to Human Health, Harvard Medical School: http://chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/bio/
  9. “Position Statement on Genetically Engineered Food,” Health Care Without Harm: www.noharm.org/lib/downloads/food/Genetic_Engineered_Food_Stmnt.pdf 
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Organic Agriculture and Food Security,” ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/organicag/ofs/OFS-2007-5.pdf
  11. Personal communications with Robert Kremer, September 5,8,9, 2008.
  12. Personal communication with Bill Wenzel, Farmer to Farmer Campaign on Genetic Engineering, 9/5/08.
  13.  “GM crops are uncontainable: so what?” E. Ann Clark, Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Ontario.
  14. Center for Food Safety: www.centerforfoodsafety.org/
  15.  “Round 2 for Biotech Beets,” New York Times, November, 27, 2007: www.nytimes.com/2007/11/27/business/27sugar.html
  16.  “Application of Modern Biotechnology to Food and Agriculture: A Food Systems Perspective,” McCullum, C., Benbrook, C., Roberts, S., et. al. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, December 2003. 

 



 

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Failure to Yield

A Union of Concerned Scientists study shows that despite 20 years of research and 13 years of commercialization, genetic engineering has failed to significantly increase U.S. crop yields.
See the study

Biotech Glossary

Biotechnology, bioengineering, and genetic engineering describe recombinant DNA technology, which allows scientists to cross species barriers. For example: inserting bacterial DNA into a plant to deliver traits such as pest or herbicide resistance.

GMO: Genetically modified organism
GE: Genetically engineered
RR: Roundup Ready
Bt: Bacillus thuringiensis
Roundup: glyphosate

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