Mothers for Organic (continued)


Notes: The Organic Manifesto
of a Biologist Mother

1. B.P. Baker et al., "Pesticide Residues in Conventional, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)-grown and Organic Foods: Insights from Three US Data Sets," Food Additives and Contaminants 19(2002): 427-446.

2. C.L. Curl et al., "Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposures of Urban and Suburban Pre-school Children with Organic and Conventional Diets," Environmental Health Perspectives 111(2003): 377-82.

3. R.G. Gupta, "Environmental Agents and Placental Toxicity: Anticholinesterases and Other Insecticides," in B.V. Rama Sastry, ed., Placental Toxicology (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1995), pp. 257-78.

4. S. Tarter, "Grapes Struggle in Illinois Due to Chemical Drift, Overspray," Peoria Journal Star, April 30, 2002.

5. T. Hayes et al., "Herbicides: Feminization of Male Frogs in the Wild," Nature 419(2002): 895-96.

6. A. Marco et al., "Sensitivity to Nitrate and Nitrite in Pond-Breeding Amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(1999): 2836-39.

7. Cancers found in excess among U.S. farmers include blood and nervous system cancers. Cancers found in excess among their children include brain cancers, leukemias, Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. L.E. Fleming et al., "National Health Interview Survey Mortality Among US Farmers and Pesticide Applicators," American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43 (2003): 227-33; L.M. O'Leary et al., "Parental Occupational Exposures and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Review," American Journal of Industrial Medicine 20 (1991): 17-35; J.L. Daniels et al., "Pesticides and Childhood Cancers," Environmental Health Perspectives 105(1997): 1068-77.

8. E.M. Bell et al., "A Case-Control Study of Pesticides and Fetal Death Due to Congenital Anomalies," Epidemiology 12(2001): 148-156; V.F. Garry et al, "Pesticide Appliers, Biocides, and Birth Defects in Rural Minnesota," Environmental Health Perspectives 104(1996): 394-99; R. Munger et al., "Birth Defects and Pesticide-Contaminated Water Supplies in Iowa," American Journal of Epidemiology 136(1992): 959. Birth defects associated with pesticide exposure include cleft lip and palate, limb defects, heart malformations, spina bifida, hydocephaly, undescended testicles, and hypospadias. See also G. Solomon et al., Pesticides and Human Health: A Resource for Health Care Professionals (San Francisco: Physicians for Social Responsibility, 2000), pp. 40-42.

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